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FVUR Family Video User Review
FVUR Fantasy Violence You Are
FVUR Future Value Unfinanced Requirement
FVUR Face Value Unfinanced Requirement
FVUR Fair Value Unfinanced Requirement
FVUR Fun Video Un-registered
FVUR Filter UV

## FVUR Family Video User Review

clips of video, usually part of a longer piece.

Video clips in digital format are often found on the internet where the massive influx of new video clips during 2006 was hailed as a new phenomenon having a profound impact on both the internet and other forms of media. Sources for video clips include news and sporting events, historical videos, music videos, television programmes, film trailers and vlogs. Webvideo in its current form distinguishes itself from what is mostly known as video on demand mainly in terms of technology, interface and cost for the user. The current hype in online video viewing only arose when sites were introduced that offered free hosting for the high bandwidth content and the possibility to easily integrate these into personal Blogs or websites. This enabled online videos to cross over into the mainstream. The arrival of these sites also gave rise to more widespread use of the name webvideo. Video on demand however, is more closely associated with payed content of film studios, online video stores en cable providers. Video on demand also specifically references videos that start at a moment of the user's choice, as opposed to streaming, multicast and webcams in which the data is sent to the user live by a server.

The term is also more loosely used to mean any short video less than the length of a traditional television programme.
On the Internet

With the spread of broadband Internet access, video clips have become very popular online. By mid 2006 there were tens of millions of video clips available online, with new websites springing up focusing entirely on offering free video clip to users and many established and corporate sites adding video clip content to their websites. With the spread of broadband Internet access, video clips have become very popular online. Whereas most of this content is non-exclusive and available on competing sites, some companies produce all their own videos and do not rely on the work of outside companies or amateurs.

While some video clips are taken from established media sources, community or individual-produced clips are becoming more common. Some individuals host their created works on vlogs, which are video blogs. The use of internet video is growing very fast. Between March and July of the year 2006 YouTube alone grew from 30 to 100 million views of videos per day. More recent developments includes the BBC's iPlayer, due for release in July 2007.

Distinctive properties

As the developments in the area of internet video move very swiftly, it is difficult to define distinctive properties. There are however certain criteria, which seem to fit most web videos:

* most commonly use FLV format (Flash Video), but also Windows Media Video, RealMedia, Quicktime or DivX;
* usually freely available, which might help explain the current popularity;
* most commonly uploaded by private persons, which explains the inferior technical quality when compared to paid content;
* due to the lack of censorship there seems to be an abundance of free expressions, especially by youth;
* commonly used on weblogs and other web 2.0 sites;
* commonly financed by advertising revenue at the hosting site. Although YouTube has announced plans to let creative users share in the advertising income, for now the only benefiting parties are the site owners.

Clip culture

The widespread popularity of video clips, with the aid of new distribution channels, has evolved into clip culture. It is compared to "lean-back" experience of seeing traditional movies, refers to an internet activity of sharing and viewing a short video, mostly less than 15 minutes. The culture began as early as the development of broadband network, but it sees the boom since 2005 when websites for uploading clips are emerging on the market, including YouTube, Google Video, MSN Video and Yahoo! Video.

These video clips often show moments of significance, humour, oddity, or prodigy performance. Sources for video clips include news, movies, music video and amateur video shot. In addition to the clip recorded by high-quality camcorders, it is becoming common to produce clips with digital camera, webcam, and mobile phone.

Rise of amateurs

Unlike traditional movies largely dominated by studios, clip movies were overwhelmingly supplied by amateurs. In May 2006, The Economist reported that 90% of clips on YouTube came from amateurs, a few of whom are young comedians. It, in effect, also brought amateur talents.

In 2005, two Chinese students Huang Yixin and Wei Wei, now dubbed as "Back Dorm Boys" showed their talent in lip-synching in a song of the Backstreet Boys, with their self-conscious grimaces in a video uploaded to some clip websites, has instantly become renown. Not only did they appear on television shows, concerts, but were also granted a contract by a media company in Beijing for lip-syncing for cash.

An earlier celebrity was David Elsewhere, a talent at popping and liquiding. His performance to Kraftwerk's song Expo 2000 at the talent show Kollaboration in 2001 was widely spread on the internet leading later to his being hired to participate as a dancer in advertisements for Heineken, iPod and Pepsi.

Citizen journalism

Citizen video reporting dates back as early as the development of camcorders, but all videos were screened by the local media outlets of the time, until its spread has been aided by free upload websites in which censorship is limited to make a vast amount of videos available to anyone who wants it. Scenes rarely broadcast on television, and many first-witnessed scenes have since become publicly available.
The tsunami caused by the December 26, 2004 earthquake strikes Ao Nang, Thailand.
The tsunami caused by the December 26, 2004 earthquake strikes Ao Nang, Thailand.

Notably, in December 2004, tourist videos on the Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami offered worldwide audiences the first scenes of the disaster. In December 2003, videos in Hong Kong showing the bully in De La Salle School has outraged the public, raised a wide concern on school violence and led to the arrest of 11 students.
Vlog

In late 2005 to early 2006, a new form of blogging emerged called a vlog. It is a blog that takes video as the primary content, often accompanied by supporting text, image, and additional metadata to provide context. Su Li Walker, an analyst with the Yankee Group, said that like blogs, which have become an extension of traditional media, video blogs will be a supplement to traditional broadcasting.

The potential markets of video clips has caught the attention of traditional studios. In 2006, the producers of Lucky Number Slevin, a film with Morgan Freeman, Lucy Liu and Bruce Willis, made an 8-minute clip for YouTube. Celebrity in traditional media has proven to confer bigger popularity in clip culture.

Cyril Takayama, a Japanese-European magician, became famous by showing his theandric skills in Japanese TV magic show in 2004. His fame was achieved only in Japan and the international magicians' culture, until his video clips were later spread across the Internet.

Video blog

A video blog, sometimes shortened to vlog is a blog that comprises video . Regular entries are typically presented in reverse chronological order and often combine embedded video or a video link with supporting text, images, and other metadata.

## FVUR functional Vesicoureteral reflux

FVUR functional Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is an abnormal movement of urine from the bladder into ureters or kidneys. Urine normally travels from the kidneys via the ureters to the bladder. In vesicoureteral reflux the direction of urine flow is reversed (retrograde).
Symptoms

Most patients will present with symptoms consistent with a urinary tract infection. In the absence of infection discomfort when voiding or flank pain may be the most obvious symptoms. Pyelonephritis and associated symptoms are also not uncommon.

Newborns may be lethargic with failure to thrive, while infants and young children typically present with pyrexia, dysuria, frequent urination, malodorous urine and GIT symptoms.

Causes

In healthy individuals the ureters enter the urinary bladder obliquely and run submucosally for some distance. This in addition to the ureter's muscular attachments help secure and support them posteriorly. Together these features produce a valve like effect that occludes the ureteric opening during storage and voiding of urine. In people with VUR failure of this mechanism occurs with resultant retrograde flow of urine.

Primary VUR

Insufficient submucosal length of the ureter relative to its diameter causes inadequacy of the valvular mechanism. This is precipitated by a congenital defect/lack of longitudinal muscle of the intravesical ureter resulting in an ureterovesicular junction (UVJ) anomaly.

Secondary VUR

In this category the valvular mechanism is intact and healthy to start with but becomes overwhelmed by raised vesicular pressures associated with obstruction, which distorts the ureterovesical junction. The obstructions may be anatomical or functional. Secondary VUR can be further divided into anatomical and functional groups as follows:

Anatomical: Posterior urethral valves; urethral or meatal stenosis.

These causes are treated surgically when possible.

Functional: Bladder instability, neurogenic bladder and non-neurogenic neurogenic bladder Urinary tract infections may cause reflux due to the elevated pressures associated with inflammation.

Resolution of functional VUR will usually occur if the precipitating cause is treated and resolved. Medical and/or surgical treatment may be indicated.

Prevalence

It has been estimated that VUR is present in more than 10% of the population. In children without urinary tract infections 17.2-18.5% have VUR, whereas in those with urinary tract infections the incidence may be as high as 70%.

Age

Younger children are more prone to VUR because of the relative shortness of the submucosal ureters. This susceptibility decreases with age as the length of the ureters increases as the children grow. In children under the age of 1 year with a urinary tract infection, 70% will have VUR. This number decreases to 15% by the age of 12.

Sex

Although VUR is more common in males antenatally, in later life there is a definite female preponderance with 85% of cases being female.

International Classification of Vesicoureteral Reflux

* Grade I – reflux into non-dilated ureter
* Grade II – reflux into the renal pelvis and calyces without dilatation
* Grade III – mild/moderate dilatation of the ureter, renal pelvis and calyces with minimal blunting of the fornices
* Grade IV – dilation of the renal pelvis and calyces with moderate ureteral tortuosity
* Grade V – gross dilatation of the ureter, pelvis and calyces; ureteral tortuosity; papillary impressions

The younger the age of the patient and the lower the grade at presentation the higher the chance of spontaneous resolution. Most (approx. 85%) of grade I & II cases of VUR will resolve spontaneously. Approximately 50% of grade III cases and a lower percentage of higher grades will also resolve spontaneously.

Diagnosis

The following procedures may be used to diagnose VUR:

* Nuclear cystogram (RNC)
* Flouroscopic voiding cytourerthrogram (VCUG)
* Ultrasonic cystography
* Abdominal ultrasound

VCUG is the method of choice for grading and initial workup, while RNC is preferred for subsequent evaluations as there is less exposure to radiation. A high index of suspicion should be attached to any case a where a child presents with a urinary tract infection, and anatomical causes should be excluded. A VCUG and abdominal ultrasound should be performed in these cases

Treatment

Medical treatment is the preferred mode of management but surgical interventions may be necessary. Medical management is recommended in children with Grade I-III VUR as most cases will resolve spontaneously. A trial of medical treatment is indicated in patients with Grade IV VUR especially in younger patients or those with unilateral disease. Of the patients with Grade V VUR only infants are trialled on a medical approach before surgery is indicated, in older patients surgery is the only option.

Medical Treatment

Medical treatment entails low dose antibiotic prophylaxis until resolution of VUR occurs. Antibiotics are administered nightly at half the normal therapeutic dose. The specific antibiotics used differ with the age of the patient and include:

* Amoxicillin or ampicillin - infants younger then 6 weeks
* Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole) - 6 weeks to 2 months

After 2 months the following antibiotics are suitable:

* Nitrofurantoin
* Nalidixic acid
* Bactrim
* Trimethoprim
* Cephalosporins

Urine cultures are performed 3 monthly to exclude breakthrough infection. Annual radiological investigations are likewise indicated. Good perineal hygiene, and timed and double voiding are also important aspects of medical treatment. Bladder dysfunction is treated with the administration of anticholinergics.

Surgical Management

A surgical approach is necessary in cases where a breakthrough infection results despite prophylaxis, or there is non-compliance with the prophylaxis. Similarly if the VUR is severe (Grade IV & V), there are pyelonephritic changes or congenital abnormalities. Other reasons necessitating surgical intervention are failure of renal growth, formation of new scars, renal deterioration and VUR in girls approaching puberty.

There are three types of surgical procedure available for the treatment of VUR: endoscopic (STING procedure); laparoscopic; and open procedures (Cohen procedure, Leadbetter-Politano procedure).

## FVUR Fraction of variance unexplained regression

In statistics, the fraction of variance unexplained (or FVU) in the context of a regression task is the amount of variance of the regressand Y which cannot be explained, i.e., which is not correctly predicted, by the explanatory variable X.

Formal definition

Given a regression function f(·) yielding for each yi, 1\leq i\leq N, an estimate \hat{y}_i = f(x_i), we have:

\begin{align} FVU &= {SS_E \over SS_T} = 1-{SS_R \over SS_T}. \\ &= 1 - R^2, \end{align}

where R2 is the coefficient of determination and

\begin{align} SS_E&=\sum{}_{i=1}^N\;(y_i - \hat{y_i})^2\\ SS_T&=\sum{}_{i=1}^N\;(y_i-\bar{y})^2 \\ SS_R&=\sum{}_{i=1}^N\;(\hat{y_i}-\bar{y})^2 \textrm{\ \ and} \\ \bar{y}&=\frac{1}{N}\sum{}_{i=1}^N\;y_i. \end{align}

Alternatively, the fraction of variance unexplained can be defined as:

FVU = \frac{MSE(f)}{\mathrm{var}[Y]} = \frac{\mathrm{var}[Y - f(X)]}{\mathrm{var}[Y]},

where MSE(f) is the mean squared error of the regression function f(·).

Explanation

It is useful to consider the second definition to get the idea behind FVU. When trying to predict Y, the most naïve regression function that we can think of is the constant function predicting the mean of Y, i.e., f(x_i)=\bar{y}. It follows that the MSE of this function equals the variance of Y; that is, SSE = SST, and SSR = 0. In this case, the variations in Y cannot be accounted for, and the FVU then has its maximum value of 1.

The FVU will also be 1 if the explanatory variable X tells us nothing about Y in the sense that the predicted values of Y do not covary with Y. But as prediction gets better and the MSE can be reduced, the FVU does down. In the case of perfect prediction where \hat{y}_i = y_i, the MSE is 0, SSE = 0, SST = SSE, and the FVU is 0.

RuneScape has often been one of the top massive online role playing games. It is a unique game. But, with a unique game, comes unique players. Players get bored, and then try to develop cheats....autos or bots that will help them achieve success in their beloved games of Runescape 2.

RuneScape is a virtual world which is divided into two part: Members Areas and Non-Members areas. People who pay to play (p2p), receive access to the special areas. They also have access to the free areas. The members' places are much larger, offer "better" items for the gameplay of rs2, and much, much more. The character that you create when you first start playing runescape, moves around the game on foot; either by running, or walking. Players are challenged to their utmost skills by fighting new monsters, completing difficult quests, and manipulating marketing. As Runescape 2 is an RPG (Role playing game), there is no set path a person must take to play rs. They can choose what to do, and when, whether it be training their money-making skills, or fighting another player. Players usually interact with each other by chatting through public chat, or private chat.Internet Junction For Gamers, Runescape Market and More IJFG.COM IJFG.com was a runescape 2 based site. They have now, however, taken another look....

Of course the king of all game cheating websites is trick the trik (otherwise known as RPG Cheats Site), where you can find cheat forums, mmorpg topsite, arcade games and any mmo game related topics.

The master of massive multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPG) cheats can be found at Trik.com Trik.com; this site is one of the best today. The forum section, Trik.com forum, originally came from IJFG.com (Internet Junction For Gamers) , which was one of the best websites that discussed various gamers' issues. The full name was Internet Junction For Gamers, Runescape Market and More. This site had Jokes, Pranks, RuneScape and other cool games. RuneScape is set in a medieval fantasy world, similar to "Guild Wars" or "EverQuest," where players control character representations of themselves. As with most MMORPG, there is no overall objective or end to the game. Players explore, form alliances, perform optional tasks, and complete quests for rewards and to build characters' skills.

Trik.com continues IJFG.com's success, but Trik.com has more to offer. Trik Topsite can be found at Trik Topsite; the TopSite is a great addition if you want to find the best MMO RPG site(s) or raise your site in the rankings. Trik.com also has a viciously competitive Arcade. If you want to be the #1 Arcade on Trik, then come prove yourself at Trik.com arcade: Trik arcade.  Trik.com – Trik.com/topsite – Trik.com/forum/arcade.php

With the rising popularity of commercial MMORPG games came the desire from ardent players of these games to run their own servers beside the ones run by the game's creator. Since the original server software is not usually available, the behavior of the server has to be re-engineered. This can be done by analyzing the data stream with the original server, or by disassembling and analyzing the client which is available.

Ultima Online was one of the first large MMORPGs. Due to its openness in implementation, server emulators arose very quickly, even during the beta stage of development. The destination to which the client connects was changeable by simply editing a text file. In beta stage the client-server data stream was not encrypted yet. The term server emulator became known through Ultima Online server reimplementation such as UOX, which was the pioneer. Many forks and reimplementations followed UOX, because its source code was released under the GNU General Public License relatively early. RunUO is today the most widely used UO-server emulator. After RuneScape implemented anti-cheating measures, many gamers left and started their own private servers. The best place to discuss the private server is at Trik- The Master of Private Server.

Another useful site is Rune Web ruwb.com . This site is about more serious RuneScape gold trading, account exchange, gold for real life cash and many services. It includes tips on how to avoid getting lured/scammed while using the marketplace. For programming, visual basics, java, C/C++, scar and all other languages such as PHP, HTML, ASP, Delphi. There are also sections for graphics talents, plus many cool videos and fun stuff.

A defining moment in internet gaming history was when a group of gamers called (hygo 7) decided to start an ultimate game forum, which they named hygo.com. It has the best financial backing, the friendliest game community, and the highest quality of information. Currently Hygo.com has entered a new phase...Hygo.com is offering the best private server game. With thousands of members, Hygo.com is your next place to visit, as they have an amazing game with a community and economy. Hygo.com - The Online Adventure Game. is definitely one of the top sites you want to join right now!